Memento mori (Latin: “remember that you have to die”) is the medieval Latin Christian theory and practice of reflection on mortality, especially as a means of considering the vanity of earthly life and the transient nature of all earthly goods and pursuits. It is related to the ars moriendi (“The Art of Dying”) and related literature. Memento mori has been an important part of ascetic disciplines as a means of perfecting the character by cultivating detachment and other virtues, and by turning the attention towards the immortality of the soul and the afterlife.
In art, memento mori are artistic or symbolic reminders of mortality. In the European Christian art context, “the expression […] developed with the growth of Christianity, which emphasized Heaven, Hell, and salvation of the soul in the afterlife”.